ERIC Number: EJ1060156
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-May
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 67
The Power of Instructions: Proactive Configuration of Stimulus-Response Translation
Meiran, Nachshon; Pereg, Maayan; Kessler, Yoav; Cole, Michael W.; Braver, Todd S.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v41 n3 p768-786 May 2015
Humans are characterized by an especially highly developed ability to use instructions to prepare toward upcoming events; yet, it is unclear just how powerful instructions can be. Although prior work provides evidence that instructions can be sufficiently powerful to proactively program working memory to execute stimulus-response (S-R) translations, in a reflex-like fashion (intention-based reflexivity [IBR]), the results to date have been equivocal. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed, and tested in 4 studies, a novel paradigm (the "NEXT paradigm") that isolates IBR effects even prior to first task execution. In each miniblock, participants received S-R mapping instructions for a new task. Prior to implementing this mapping, responses were required to advance through screens during a preparatory (NEXT) phase. When the NEXT response was incompatible with the instructed S-R mapping, interference (IBR effect) was observed. This NEXT compatibility effect and performance in the implementation (GO) trials barely changed when prior practice of a few trials was provided. Finally, a manipulation that encouraged preparation resulted in relatively durable NEXT compatibility effects (indicating durable preparatory efforts) coupled with improved GO performance (indicating the success of these efforts). Together, these findings establish IBR as a marker of instructed proactive control.
Descriptors: Responses, Cognitive Processes, Short Term Memory, Stimuli, Task Analysis, Interference (Learning), Computer Assisted Testing, Reaction Time, Decision Making, Psychological Studies, Models, Foreign Countries, Cues, Groups, Statistical Analysis
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail: email@example.com; Web site: http://www.apa.org
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Israel