ERIC Number: EJ1060123
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-May
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 45
Negative and Positive Testing Effects in Terms of Item-Specific and Relational Information
Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v41 n3 p859-871 May 2015
Though retrieving information typically results in improved memory on a subsequent test (the testing effect), Peterson and Mulligan (2013) outlined the conditions under which retrieval practice results in poorer recall relative to restudy, a phenomenon dubbed the "negative testing effect." The item-specific-relational account proposes that this occurs when retrieval disrupts interitem relational encoding despite enhancing item-specific information. Four experiments examined the negative testing effect, showing the following: (a) The basic phenomenon is replicable in free recall; (b) it extends to category-cued recall; (c) it converts to a positive testing effect when the final test is recognition, a test heavily reliant on item-specific information; (d) the negative testing effect in recall, robust in a pure list design, reverses to a positive testing effect in a mixed-list design; and (e) more generally, the present testing manipulation interacts with experimental design, such that an initially negative effect becomes positive or an initially positive effect becomes larger as the design changes from pure-list to mixed-list. The breadth of results fits well within the item-specific-relational framework and provides evidence against 2 alternative accounts. Finally, this research indicates that the testing effect shares important similarities with the generation effect and other similar memory phenomena.
Descriptors: Memory, Recall (Psychology), Testing, Item Analysis, Cognitive Processes, Cues, Classification, Recognition (Psychology), Research Design, Guidelines, Evidence, Undergraduate Students, Statistical Analysis
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: North Carolina