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ERIC Number: EJ1059998
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Apr
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1092-4388
The Role of Sentence Position, Allomorph, and Morpheme Type on Accurate Use of s-Related Morphemes by Children Who Are Hard of Hearing
Koehlinger, Keegan; Van Horne, Amanda Owen; Oleson, Jacob; McCreery, Ryan; Moeller, Mary Pat
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, v58 n2 p396-409 Apr 2015
Purpose: Production accuracy of s-related morphemes was examined in 3-year-olds with mild-to-severe hearing loss, focusing on perceptibility, articulation, and input frequency. Method: Morphemes with /s/, /z/, and /?z/ as allomorphs (plural, possessive, third-person singular -s, and auxiliary and copula "is") were analyzed from language samples gathered from 51 children (ages: 2;10 [years;months] to 3;8) who are hard of hearing (HH), all of whom used amplification. Articulation was assessed via the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-Second Edition, and monomorphemic word final /s/ and /z/ production. Hearing was measured via better ear pure tone average, unaided Speech Intelligibility Index, and aided sensation level of speech at 4 kHz. Results: Unlike results reported for children with normal hearing, the group of children who are HH correctly produced the /?z/ allomorph more than /s/ and /z/ allomorphs. Relative accuracy levels for morphemes and sentence positions paralleled those of children with normal hearing. The 4-kHz sensation level scores (but not the better ear pure tone average or Speech Intelligibility Index), the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-Second Edition, and word final s/z use all predicted accuracy. Conclusions: Both better hearing and higher articulation scores are associated with improved morpheme production, and better aided audibility in the high frequencies and word final production of s/z are particularly critical for morpheme acquisition in children who are HH.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Tel: 800-638-8255; Fax: 301-571-0457; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation
Grant or Contract Numbers: 5 R01 DC009560-03; 2 R01 DC009560-06