ERIC Number: EJ1059798
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Effects of a Peer-Administered Token Economy on Second Grade Physical Education Students' Overhand Throw Performance
Alstot, Andrew E.
Physical Educator, v72 n2 2015
Token economies have been shown useful in a variety of settings to improve physical activity-related behaviors. However, few researchers in empirical research have examined the effects of token reinforcement targeting motor skill performance implemented specifically in physical education with typically developing children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a token economy on the overhand throw performance of second grade physical education students. An alternating treatments design was used with students participating in overhand throwing sessions that alternated between baseline and token economy phases. Performance scores for each session were inspected for response differentiation between the two phases. In analysis, it was revealed the token economy was effective in all seven participants. Additionally, participants increased the number of overhand components performed correctly during token phases by 10% to 27% per session. A functional relation between token reinforcement and overhand throw performance was evident in most participants. Therefore, it was concluded that token reinforcement can be an effective tool for physical educators.
Descriptors: Token Economy, Physical Education, Grade 2, Elementary School Students, Performance, Psychomotor Skills, Instructional Effectiveness
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 2; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education
Authoring Institution: N/A