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ERIC Number: EJ1057418
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Sep
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 111
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
Type I Error Inflation in the Traditional By-Participant Analysis to Metamemory Accuracy: A Generalized Mixed-Effects Model Perspective
Murayama, Kou; Sakaki, Michiko; Yan, Veronica X.; Smith, Garry M.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v40 n5 p1287-1306 Sep 2014
In order to examine metacognitive accuracy (i.e., the relationship between metacognitive judgment and memory performance), researchers often rely on by-participant analysis, where metacognitive accuracy (e.g., resolution, as measured by the gamma coefficient or signal detection measures) is computed for each participant and the computed values are entered into group-level statistical tests such as the "t" test. In the current work, we argue that the by-participant analysis, regardless of the accuracy measurements used, would produce a substantial inflation of Type I error rates when a random item effect is present. A mixed-effects model is proposed as a way to effectively address the issue, and our simulation studies examining Type I error rates indeed showed superior performance of mixed-effects model analysis as compared to the conventional by-participant analysis. We also present real data applications to illustrate further strengths of mixed-effects model analysis. Our findings imply that caution is needed when using the by-participant analysis, and recommend the mixed-effects model analysis.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A