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ERIC Number: EJ1056407
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Jan
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
Connecting Spatial Memories of Two Nested Spaces
Zhang, Hui; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.; Wang, Lin
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v40 n1 p191-202 Jan 2014
Four experiments investigated the manner in which people use spatial reference directions to organize spatial memories of 2 conceptually nested layouts. Participants learned directions of 8 remote cities centered to Beijing or Edmonton, where the experiments occurred, using a map or using direct pointing. The map and the environment were aligned, and participants faced north (0°). Participants also learned locations of 7 objects on a table. Participants faced north (0°) during learning but were instructed to learn the layout along the northwest-southeast (45°-225°) axis. Judgments of relative direction (imagine you are standing at X, facing Y, point to Z) were used to determine spatial reference directions in retrieval of bearings between 2 objects or 2 cities. The results showed that when the tested bearing and the imagined heading were within an array, participants used 0° as the reference direction in retrieving bearings between cities but used 45°-225° to retrieve bearings between objects. When the tested bearing and the imagined heading were across 2 arrays, participants used the reference direction of the array from which the tested bearing was. These results indicated that bearings between items within an array were represented only with respect to the reference directions of this array and the relationship between spatial reference directions in these 2 arrays was also represented.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS/NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada (Edmonton); China (Beijing)
Grant or Contract Numbers: 2-R01-MH57868