ERIC Number: EJ1056017
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Nov
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 43
Focusing the Search: Proactive and Retroactive Interference and the Dynamics of Free Recall
Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v39 n6 p1742-1756 Nov 2013
Targeting information in long-term memory is an important cognitive ability, but one that is not well understood. In this study, 4 experiments were conducted to examine the influence of proactive and retroactive interference on memory targeting. Participants were given either 1 or 2 lists and asked to recall List 1, List 2, or in some cases both lists. Multiple dependent measures were explored including the proportion of items recalled, number of intrusions output, and recall latency to arbitrate between 4 extant accounts of memory targeting. In general, recalling either List 1 or List 2 resulted in lower probability of recall, recall of more intrusions, and longer recall latencies compared to when recalling a list alone, suggesting both proactive and retroactive interference. These results suggest that long-term memory targeting is guided by noisy temporal-contextual cues (unless other salient cues are present) that activate both relevant and irrelevant memoranda that are then subjected to a postretrieval monitoring process.
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Interference (Learning), Memory, Recall (Psychology), Long Term Memory, Probability, Cues, Context Effect, Experimental Psychology, Undergraduate Students, Word Lists, Statistical Analysis
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Georgia; Oregon