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ERIC Number: EJ1055996
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Jul
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
When Does Memory Monitoring Succeed versus Fail? Comparing Item-Specific and Relational Encoding in the DRM Paradigm
Huff, Mark J.; Bodner, Glen E.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v39 n4 p1246-1256 Jul 2013
We compared the effects of item-specific versus relational encoding on recognition memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In Experiment 1, we directly compared item-specific and relational encoding instructions, whereas in Experiments 2 and 3 we biased pleasantness and generation tasks, respectively, toward one or the other type of processing. A read condition was tested in each experiment for comparison purposes. Across experiments, item-specific and relational encoding both boosted correct recognition relative to reading, but only item-specific encoding typically reduced false recognition. Signal-detection measures revealed that less information was encoded about critical items after item-specific than after relational encoding. In contrast, item-specific and relational encoding led to equivalent increases in strategic monitoring at test (e.g., use of a distinctiveness heuristic). Thus, monitoring at test was less successful after relational than item-specific encoding because more information had been encoded about critical lures.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada (Calgary)
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A