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ERIC Number: EJ1055965
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-May
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
Test-Potentiated Learning: Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Effects of Tests
Arnold, Kathleen M.; McDermott, Kathleen B.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v39 n3 p940-945 May 2013
The facilitative effect of retrieval practice, or testing, on the probability of later retrieval has been the focus of much recent empirical research. A lesser known benefit of retrieval practice is that it may also enhance the ability of a learner to benefit from a subsequent restudy opportunity. This facilitative effect of retrieval practice on subsequent encoding is known as "test-potentiated learning." Thus far, however, the literature has not isolated the indirect effect of retrieval practice on subsequent memory (via enhancing the effectiveness of restudy) from the direct effects of retrieval on subsequent memory. The experiment presented here uses conditional probability to disentangle test-potentiated learning from the direct effects of retrieval practice. The results indicate that unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance the effectiveness of subsequent restudy, demonstrating that tests do potentiate subsequent learning.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institutes of Health (DHHS)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Missouri
Grant or Contract Numbers: 5T32GM081739