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ERIC Number: EJ1055675
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0574
A Study Comparing Virtual Manipulatives with Other Instructional Treatments in Third-and Fourth-Grade Classrooms
Moyer-Packenham, Patricia; Baker, Joseph; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson, Katie; Shumway, Jessica; Rodzon, Kati; Jordan, Kerry
Journal of Education, v193 n2 p25-39 2013
The study reported here examined virtual manipulatives as an instructional treatment in 17 third- and fourth-grade classrooms. Students were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: texts and physical manipulatives, and virtual manipulatives. Results revealed no significant differences in achievement between the treatments. Additional results showed that objective ability predicted fraction achievement; virtual manipulative use can be modulated by test question type (e.g., symbolic vs. pictorial); percentage of class time using representations differed between VM and PM classrooms; and percentage of class time spent using representation types differed, potentially providing differential opportunities to learn.
Boston University School of Education. Two Silver Way, Boston, MA 02215. Tel: 617-353-3230; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A