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ERIC Number: EJ1055414
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 21
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-1541-5015
The 3C3R Model: A Conceptual Framework for Designing Problems in PBL
Hung, Woei
Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, v1 n1 p55-77 Spr 2006
Well-designed problems are crucial for the success of problem-based learning (PBL). Previous discussions about designing problems for PBL have been rather general and inadequate in guiding educators and practitioners to design effective PBL problems. This paper introduces the 3C3R PBL problem design model as a conceptual framework for systematically designing optimal PBL problems. The 3C3R model comprises two classes of components: core components and processing components. Core components--including content, context, and connection--support content and conceptual learning, while processing components--consisting of researching, reasoning, and reflecting--concern students' cognitive processes and problem-solving skills. This paper discusses the model in terms of its theoretical basis, component functions, and the techniques used in designing PBL problems.
Purdue University Press. Stewart Center Room 370, 504 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Tel: 800-247-6553; Fax: 419-281-6883; e-mail: pupress@purdue,edu; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Education; Secondary Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Arizona
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A