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ERIC Number: EJ1054577
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Aug
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Academic Self-Handicapping and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis
Schwinger, Malte; Wirthwein, Linda; Lemmer, Gunnar; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Journal of Educational Psychology, v106 n3 p744-761 Aug 2014
Self-handicapping represents a frequently used strategy for regulating the threat to self-esteem elicited by the fear of failing in academic achievement settings. Several studies have documented negative associations between self-handicapping and different educational outcomes, inter alia academic achievement. However, studies on the relation between self-handicapping and academic achievement have yielded heterogeneous results, indicating the need to conduct meta-analytic investigations and to examine the relevance of several potential moderator variables. This meta-analysis integrates the results of 36 field studies with 49 independent effect sizes (N = 25,550). A random effects model revealed a mean effect size between self-handicapping and academic achievement of r = -0.23 (p < 0.001, range: r = -0.46 to r = 0.02). Moreover, moderator analyses showed that the type of self-handicapping scale, the school type (elementary, middle, high school, university), the level of mastery goals in the sample, and the reliability of the self-handicapping scale considerably influenced the mean correlation. Based on our findings, we conclude that educational interventions to enhance academic achievement should additionally focus on preventing self-handicapping.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education; Middle Schools; Junior High Schools; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A