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ERIC Number: EJ1054506
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Aug
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Effects of Tier 3 Intervention for Students with Persistent Reading Difficulties and Characteristics of Inadequate Responders
Denton, Carolyn A.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon; Francis, David J.
Journal of Educational Psychology, v105 n3 p633-648 Aug 2013
This article describes a randomized controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effects of an intensive, individualized, Tier 3 reading intervention for second grade students who had previously experienced inadequate response to quality first grade classroom reading instruction (Tier 1) and supplemental small-group intervention (Tier 2). Also evaluated were cognitive characteristics of students with inadequate response to intensive Tier 3 intervention. Students were randomized to receive the research intervention (N = 47) or the instruction and intervention typically provided in their schools (N = 25). Results indicated that students who received the research intervention made significantly better growth than those who received typical school instruction on measures of word identification, phonemic decoding, and word reading fluency and on a measure of sentence- and paragraph-level reading comprehension. Treatment effects were smaller and not statistically significant on phonemic decoding efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension in extended text. Effect sizes for all outcomes except oral reading fluency met criteria for substantive importance; however, many of the students in the intervention continued to struggle. An evaluation of cognitive profiles of adequate and inadequate responders was consistent with a continuum of severity (as opposed to qualitative differences), showing greater language and reading impairment prior to the intervention in students who were inadequate responders.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 2; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS); Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests; Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test; Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement
Grant or Contract Numbers: P50 HD052117-03; K99HD061689; 1K08HD068545-01A1
What Works Clearinghouse Reviewed: Meets Evidence Standards without Reservations