**ERIC Number:**EJ1051696

**Record Type:**Journal

**Publication Date:**2015-Feb

**Pages:**7

**Abstractor:**ERIC

**ISBN:**N/A

**ISSN:**ISSN-0025-5769

**EISSN:**N/A

Mathematical Modeling: A Structured Process

Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo

Mathematics Teacher, v108 n6 p446-452 Feb 2015

Mathematical modeling, in which students use mathematics to explain or interpret physical, social, or scientific phenomena, is an essential component of the high school curriculum. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) classify modeling as a K-12 standard for mathematical practice and as a conceptual category for high school (CCSSI 2010, p. 7). CCSSM also describes mathematical modeling as "the process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decisions" (CCSSI 2010, p. 72). The main goal of this article is to elaborate on the process of modeling as described by CCSSM, paying particular attention to the modeling elements. The authors highlight practical aspects of modeling through a concrete example, carefully analyzing to make the process of mathematical modeling more accessible to teachers and students. The example provided shows how a single activity can target multiple concepts and approaches, allowing students to understand those concepts and make connections among then. Students' work should be evaluated not only on the outcome of their model but also on the thought process demonstrated in more than one iteration of the modeling cycle. To help with this understanding, the authors also provide a useful evaluation rubric with criteria for assessing student work in modeling.

Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Mathematical Models, Teaching Methods, Mathematical Concepts, Concept Formation, Scoring Rubrics, Academic Standards, State Standards, Word Problems (Mathematics), Problem Solving, Computation, Telecommunications, Secondary School Mathematics, High Schools

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1502. Tel: 800-235-7566; Tel: 703-620-3702; Fax: 703-476-2970; e-mail: orders@nctm.org; Web site: http://www.nctm.org/publications/

**Publication Type:**Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive

**Education Level:**Secondary Education; High Schools

**Audience:**Teachers

**Language:**English

**Sponsor:**N/A

**Authoring Institution:**N/A

**Grant or Contract Numbers:**N/A