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ERIC Number: EJ1051195
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Apr
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 42
ISSN: ISSN-0012-1649
Establishing and Explaining the Testing Effect in Free Recall for Young Children
Lipowski, Stacy L.; Pyc, Mary A.; Dunlosky, John; Rawson, Katherine A.
Developmental Psychology, v50 n4 p994-1000 Apr 2014
Research has consistently shown memory is enhanced when learning combines test trials with study trials compared with study trials alone (i.e., testing effect). However, the majority of work on testing effects has involved undergraduate students. In the current experiment, the authors examined testing effects in 2 groups of elementary school children. First and 3rd graders learned 1 list of words in a test-plus-restudy condition and a 2nd list of words in a restudy condition. In addition to examining the benefits of testing in children, the authors examined possible explanations for the memorial benefits of testing that have received initial support in adult populations (Zaromb & Roediger, 2010). Results showed that the benefits of testing extend to elementary school children and that testing enhanced item-specific processing but not relational processing. Third graders were also aware of the memorial benefits of testing, whereas 1st graders were not. Most important, even 1st graders benefit from testing, in part because testing allows them to capitalize on their ability to process item-specific information.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 3
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Ohio