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ERIC Number: EJ1050766
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jan
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Assembly of a Robust and Economical MnO[subscript2]-Based Reference Electrode
MasseĀ“, Robert C.; Gerken, James B.
Journal of Chemical Education, v92 n1 p110-115 Jan 2015
There is a dearth of base-stable reference electrodes that are suitable for use by students in a teaching laboratory or undergraduate research context. To remedy this, we have developed a technique to produce reference electrodes suitable for alkaline environments. By utilizing components of a commercially available alkaline-type battery, an engineered MnO[subscript2]/MnO(OH) cathode that is both stable and reproducible is readily obtained. The electrode potentials are quite stable with respect to time and depend on the state of charge of the battery used to make the electrode. The assembly and use of such reference electrodes easily lends itself to introductory electrochemistry lab experiments at a fraction of the cost of traditional electrodes.
Division of Chemical Education, Inc and ACS Publications Division of the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-227-5558; Tel: 202-872-4600; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Science Foundation
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: CHE-0802907