ERIC Number: EJ1050078
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Nov
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 34
Are Effortful and Reactive Control Unique Constructs in Young Children?
Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sallquist, Julie; Eggum, Natalie D.; Reiser, Mark
Developmental Psychology, v49 n11 p2082-2094 Nov 2013
The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age. Parents', nonparental caregivers', and/or observers' ratings were obtained for all 3 constructs at all 3 times, as were multiple behavioral indices of each construct. Several alternative factor structures were tested, including 1-, 2-, and 3-factor models. The best fitting and most parsimonious model was one with 3 separate latent constructs at 42 and 54 months and 2 distinct constructs, EC and impulsivity/low inhibition to novelty combined, at 30 months. EC, IMP, and NOV also demonstrated some interindividual consistency across time, especially EC and IMP.
Descriptors: Children, Conceptual Tempo, Self Control, Inhibition, Child Behavior, Models, Factor Structure, Age Differences, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension), Mothers, Observation, Factor Analysis
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail: email@example.com; Web site: http://www.apa.org
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A