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ERIC Number: EJ1049289
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jan
Pages: 24
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0014-4029
Inclusion versus Specialized Intervention for Very-Low-Performing Students: What Does "Access" Mean in an Era of Academic Challenge?
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Wehby, Joseph; Schumacher, Robin F.; Gersten, Russell; Jordan, Nancy C.
Exceptional Children, v81 n2 p134-157 Jan 2015
The purpose of this analysis was to examine achievement gaps on fractions for very-low-performing students as a function of whether they receive inclusive fraction instruction or specialized fraction intervention and with the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS). In three randomized control trials conducted in 3 consecutive years, 203 students who scored at or below the 10th percentile in mathematics (mean standard score ~75) at the start of fourth grade were randomly assigned at the individual level to 12 weeks of inclusive fraction instruction or specialized fraction intervention. In Year 1, the fourth-grade mathematics curriculum was guided by initial state standards; in Years 2 and 3, the state was transitioning to CCSS. In each of the 3 years on each measure, results indicated significantly stronger learning and markedly smaller post-intervention achievement gaps for specialized fraction intervention than for inclusive fraction instruction. Yet, the size of achievement gaps grew over the years in both conditions, as CCSS increased the depth and challenge of the fraction curriculum and produced differentially stronger learning in not-at-risk classmates. Implications are discussed in terms of the provision of services for students with learning disabilities in the era of CCSS and the meaning of "access to the general education curriculum."
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED); Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wide Range Achievement Test
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R324D130003; R324C100004; HD15052