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ERIC Number: EJ1049286
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Oct
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0014-4029
To Wait in Tier 1 or Intervene Immediately: A Randomized Experiment Examining First-Grade Response to Intervention in Reading
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M.; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Schatschneider, Christopher; Wagner, Richard K.
Exceptional Children, v81 n1 p11-27 Oct 2014
This randomized controlled experiment compared the efficacy of two response-to-intervention (RTI) models--typical RTI and dynamic RTI--and included 34 first-grade classrooms (n = 522 students) across 10 socioeconomically and culturally diverse schools. Typical RTI was designed to follow the two-stage RTI decision rules that wait to assess response to Tier 1 in many districts, whereas dynamic RTI provided Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions immediately according to students' initial screening results. Interventions were identical across conditions except for when intervention began. Reading assessments included letter-sound, word, passage reading, and teacher-reported severity of reading difficulties. An intent-to-treat analysis based on multilevel modeling indicated an overall effect favoring the dynamic RTI condition (d = 0.36); growth curve analyses demonstrated that students in dynamic RTI showed an immediate score advantage and that effects accumulated across the year. Analyses of standard score outcomes confirmed that students in the dynamic condition who received Tier 2 and Tier 3 ended the study with significantly higher reading performances than students in the typical condition. Implications for RTI implementation practice and future research are discussed.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 1; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS); Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement
Grant or Contract Numbers: P50HD052120
IES Cited: ED565630