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ERIC Number: EJ1046325
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-1559-5676
Vegetable Purée: A Pilot Study to Increase Vegetable Consumption among School Lunch Participants in US Elementary Schools
Vale, Angela; Schumacher, Julie Raeder; Cullen, Robert W.; Gam, Hae Jin
Journal of Child Nutrition & Management, v38 n2 Fall 2014
Purpose/Objectives: Recent US Department of Agriculture regulations increased the amount and variety of vegetables required for school lunches. Vegetables are the most wasted components of lunch while entrées are selected and consumed by the majority of children. This study examined how adding vegetable purée to an elementary school lunch entrée affected the weight and calories of the entrée consumed and the amount of vegetables consumed. Differences between genders and among grade levels were also assessed. Methods: A convenience sample (839 students) from three elementary schools in a large Central Illinois school district participated in this study. A vegetable purée of carrots, beans, and tomato paste was added to a standard entrée to increase vegetable content from the Control of 0.25 cup to 0.4 cup (Recipe 1) and 0.45 cup (Recipe 2). Children were randomly served one of three entrées, and plate waste was measured by weighing the leftover portion of the entrées. Analysis of variance and t tests were used to compare the weight of the entrée consumed and the vegetable and calorie consumption for the entrées and identify differences between genders. Univariate linear models tested interaction between entrée and grade. Results: There was no difference in consumption of the Control and Recipe 1 (p = 0.279). Recipe 2 was significantly less consumed than Recipe 1 (p< 0.001) and the Control (p< 0.05) suggesting that there may be a limit of how much vegetable purée one can add to an entrée for a student to consume a comparable amount. Significantly more vegetables (p< 0.001) and fewer calories (p< 0.001) were consumed from the entrées with added vegetables than the Control entrée. There were significant interactions between grade level and all factors, but no differences between genders were identified. Application to Child Nutrition Professionals: The study suggests that adding puréed vegetables to lunch entrées may be an effective strategy to increase vegetable consumption and reduce energy intake of elementary school children. School nutrition programs can benefit by helping meet vegetable and nutrient requirements and reducing plate waste.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Illinois
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A