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ERIC Number: EJ1044018
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 25
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0046-1520
The ICAP Framework: Linking Cognitive Engagement to Active Learning Outcomes
Chi, Michelene T. H.; Wylie, Ruth
Educational Psychologist, v49 n4 p219-243 2014
This article describes the ICAP framework that defines cognitive engagement activities on the basis of students' overt behaviors and proposes that engagement behaviors can be categorized and differentiated into one of four modes: "Interactive," "Constructive," "Active," and "Passive." The ICAP hypothesis predicts that as students become more engaged with the learning materials, from "passive" to "active" to "constructive" to "interactive," their learning will increase. We suggest possible knowledge-change processes that support the ICAP hypothesis and address the limitations and caveats of the hypothesis. In addition, empirical validation for the hypothesis is provided by examining laboratory and classroom studies that focus on three specific engagement activities: note taking, concept mapping and self-explaining. We also consider how ICAP can be used as a tool for explaining discrepant findings, dictate the proper choice of a control condition, and evaluate students' outputs. Finally, we briefly compare ICAP to existing theories of learning.
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 530 Walnut Street Suite 850, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Tel: 215-625-8900; Fax: 215-207-0050; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R305A110090