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ERIC Number: EJ1042232
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Nov
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 53
ISSN: ISSN-0731-9487
Understanding Unresponsiveness to Tier 2 Reading Intervention: Exploring the Classification and Profiles of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in First Grade
Toste, Jessica R.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Eunsoo; Barquero, Laura A.; Bouton, Bobette D.
Learning Disability Quarterly, v37 n4 p192-203 Nov 2014
The purpose of the current study was to examine academic and cognitive profiles of first graders who responded adequately and inadequately to intensive small-group reading intervention (Tier 2), as well as assess how these profiles differ based on the criteria used for classification of unresponsiveness. Nonresponders were identified using two different methods: (a) reading composite with weighted standardized scores for untimed word identification and word attack, timed sight word reading and decoding, and reading comprehension at the end of first grade (n = 23; 18.4%), and (b) local norms on first grade word identification fluency (WIF; n = 31; 24.8%). Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess the difference between responders and nonresponders on four separate profiles (i.e., academic and cognitive profiles, with groups identified using reading composite and WIF criteria for unresponsiveness). Significant level effects were found using the first-grade reading composite and the WIF criteria, indicating that the groups differ from one another across domains. Interestingly, there were only significant shape effects found when using the WIF criteria, suggesting relative strengths and weaknesses distinguish the groups. These findings suggest potentially important considerations related to identification and placement of students in appropriately intensive and targeted interventions.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 1; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED); National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Tennessee
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery; Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R324G060036; HD15052; R324A090052