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ERIC Number: EJ1042012
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Sep
Pages: 22
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 63
ISSN: ISSN-0162-3737
Cross-Level Measurement Invariance in School and Classroom Environment Surveys: Implications for Policy and Practice
Schweig, Jonathan
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, v36 n3 p259-280 Sep 2014
Measures of classroom and school environments are central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. These measures are often formed by aggregating individual survey responses to form group-level measures, and assume an invariant measurement model holds across the individual and group levels. This article explores the tenability of this assumption by applying multilevel factor analysis to two well-known surveys: the Working Conditions Survey, which assesses school environments, and the Tripod Classroom Environment Survey. The examples illustrate the consequences of using common factor analytic methods that assume cross-level invariance, and demonstrate how distorted perceptions of factorial structure can influence inferences about the relationship between working conditions and teacher mobility.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED); National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: North Carolina
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: 52306; R305B080016