NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1041657
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Aug
Pages: 23
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 68
ISSN: ISSN-0090-6905
Effects of Bilingualism and Trilingualism in L2 Production: Evidence from Errors and Self-Repairs in Early Balanced Bilingual and Trilingual Adults
Hsu, Hsiu-ling
Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, v43 n4 p357-379 Aug 2014
Through analyzing response latencies, errors, and self-repairs in Mandarin, this investigation explores how monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual adults process their speech production differently using cognitive control mechanisms. In this study we conducted two experiments involving speech production in Mandarin. In the two experiments, 81 adults participated and were categorized into three groups: Mandarin monolingual, Hakka-Mandarin bilingual, and Hakka-Mandarin-Minnan trilingual. In Experiment 1 (unpreprogrammed task), each subject read 250 targets that were presented on a computer screen, one at a time, using E-prime; in Experiment 2 (preprogrammed task), each subject read 466 targets printed on A4 paper. Experiment 1 showed that bilinguals and trilinguals outperformed monolinguals in every aspect examined in this research, revealing the presence of bilingual and trilingual advantages in inhibitory control. Interestingly, in Experiment 2, we found a more complex pattern of results: a trilingual advantage in attentional control occurred during L2 production in terms of the number of errors and error correction; however, the bilingual group did not maintain this advantage in the task requiring attentional control. These experimental results revealed that the differences between the language groups became clearer when the inhibitory control demands increased and that compared with the trilingual advantage, the bilingual advantage in inhibitory control emerged in more limited contexts.
Springer. 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 800-777-4643; Tel: 212-460-1500; Fax: 212-348-4505; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A