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ERIC Number: EJ1038400
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 34
ISSN: ISSN-1499-6677
Things I Have Learned about Meta-­Analysis since 1990: Reducing Bias in Search of "The Big Picture"
Bernard, Robert M.
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, v40 n3 Sum 2014
This paper examines sources of potential bias in systematic reviews and meta-analyses which can distort their findings, leading to problems with interpretation and application by practitioners and policymakers. It follows from an article that was published in the "Canadian Journal of Communication" in 1990, "Integrating Research into Instructional Practice: The Use and Abuse of Meta-analysis," which introduced meta-analysis as a means for estimating population parameters and summarizing quantitative research around instructional research questions. This paper begins by examining two cases where multiple meta-analyses disagree. It then goes on to describe substantive and methodological aspects of meta-analysis where various kinds of bias can influence the outcomes and suggests measures that can be taken to avoid them. The intention is to improve the reliability and accuracy of reviews so that practitioners can trust the results and use them more effectively.
Canadian Network for Innovation in Education. 260 Dalhousie Street Suite 204, Ottawa, ON K1N 7E4, Canada. Tel: 613-241-0018; Fax: 613-241-0019; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A