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ERIC Number: EJ1036320
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Aug
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 102
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
The Kimball Free-Cloud Model: A Failed Innovation in Chemical Education?
Jensen, William B.
Journal of Chemical Education, v91 n8 p1106-1124 Aug 2014
This historical review traces the origins of the Kimball free-cloud model of the chemical bond, otherwise known as the charge-cloud or tangent-sphere model, and the central role it played in attempts to reform the introductory chemical curriculum at both the high school and college levels in the 1960s. It also critically evaluates the limitations of the model, its current implicit role in the teaching of VSEPR theory, and its pedagogical implications, as well as providing a resource paper for those chemical educators interested in exploring its present-day applications.
Division of Chemical Education, Inc and ACS Publications Division of the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-227-5558; Tel: 202-872-4600; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative; Information Analyses
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A