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ERIC Number: EJ1035143
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-1324-1486
Safety-Related Improvisation in Led Outdoor Activities: An Exploratory Investigation into Its Occurrence and Influencing Factors
Trotter, Margaret J.; Salmon, Paul M.; Lenné, Michael G.
Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, v17 n2 p16-29 2014
The dynamic nature of led outdoor activities means that, despite activity providers' best efforts, activity leaders can be exposed to unanticipated situations for which no procedures exist. Improvisation, the spontaneous, real-time conception and execution of a novel response, has been identified as a potential means of maintaining safety in such situations in other safety critical domains. This study examines improvisation in the led outdoor activity context with the intention of adding to the body of knowledge around activity leader decision making. In this exploratory investigation a survey study was undertaken in order to determine whether safety-related improvisation occurs during led outdoor activities, and also to identify the circumstances in which it occurs, the form it takes, and to establish by what factors it is influenced. Over 50% of respondents reported improvising in at least half of their activities, commonly as the result of unanticipated environmental conditions and/or the need for easier procedures. Respondents identified a range of factors that influenced their ability to improvise, many of which overlap with those found in other safety critical domains, but some that appear to be unique to led outdoor activities.
Outdoor Council of Australia. 150 Caxton Street, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia. Tel: +61-7-3369-9455; Fax: +61-7-3369-9355; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A