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ERIC Number: EJ1033277
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Jul
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 52
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Dynamical Approach to Multiequilibria Problems for Mixtures of Acids and Their Conjugated Bases
Glaser, Rainer E.; Delarosa, Marco A.; Salau, Ahmed Olasunkanmi; Chicone, Carmen
Journal of Chemical Education, v91 n7 p1009-1016 Jul 2014
Mathematical methods are described for the determination of steady-state concentrations of all species in multiequilibria systems consisting of several acids and their conjugated bases in aqueous solutions. The main example consists of a mixture of a diprotic acid H[subscript 2]A, a monoprotic acid HB, and their conjugate bases. The reaction equations lead to a system of autonomous ordinary differential equations for the species concentrations. The traditional equilibrium approach is briefly reviewed. Single variable polynomials are determined that are satisfied by the equilibrium proton concentrations. The remaining species are then given explicitly by rational functions of these proton concentrations, the equilibrium constants, and the initial concentrations of the other species. A quintic polynomial was derived to determine the equilibrium proton concentration for the example system. It is shown to reduce to a quartic polynomial in the absence of the second acid HB. An alternative dynamical approach to the equilibrium problem is described that involves the formulation of the kinetic rate equations for each species, which together constitute a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations. The equilibrium concentrations are determined by evolving the initial concentrations via this dynamical system to their steady state. This dynamical approach is particularly attractive because it can easily be extended to determine equilibrium concentrations for arbitrarily large multiequilibria systems. With the equations provided here and some knowledge of computing software, the fast and accurate computation of equilibrium concentrations becomes feasible for the education of upper-division undergraduate and graduate students as well as for the study of research problems. This dynamical method also serves to introduce students to nonlinear dynamical systems, which are essential for the study of dynamic problems in chemistry, for example, oscillatory reactions.
Division of Chemical Education, Inc and ACS Publications Division of the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-227-5558; Tel: 202-872-4600; e-mail: eic@jce.acs.org; Web site: http://pubs.acs.org/jchemeduc
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A