ERIC Number: EJ1033102
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 209
Self-Control in School-Age Children
Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.
Educational Psychologist, v49 n3 p199-217 2014
Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these strategies into five families corresponding to sequential phases in the process by which undesired and desired impulses lose or gather force over time. "Situation selection" and "situation modification" strategies involve choosing or changing physical or social circumstances. "Attentional deployment" and "cognitive change" strategies involve altering whether and how objective features of the situation are mentally represented. Finally, "response modulation" strategies involve the direct suppression or enhancement of impulses. The process model of self-control predicts that strategies deployed earlier in the process of impulse generation and regulation generally will be more effective than those deployed later. Implications of this self-control perspective for school-age children are considered.
Descriptors: Self Control, Children, Resistance (Psychology), Intention, Metacognition, Independent Study, Attention, Responses, Cognitive Processes, Child Development, Environmental Influences, Elementary School Students, Secondary School Students, Literature Reviews
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Secondary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A