NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1032423
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Jun
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 38
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Application of the Covalent Bond Classification Method for the Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry
Green, Malcolm L. H.; Parkin, Gerard
Journal of Chemical Education, v91 n6 p807-816 Jun 2014
The Covalent Bond Classification (CBC) method provides a means to classify covalent molecules according to the number and types of bonds that surround an atom of interest. This approach is based on an elementary molecular orbital analysis of the bonding involving the central atom (M), with the various interactions being classified according to the number of electrons that each neutral ligand contributes to the bonding orbital. Thus, with respect to the atom of interest (M), the ligand can contribute either two (L), one (X), or zero (Z) electrons to a bonding orbital. A normal covalent bond is represented as M-X, whereas dative covalent bonds are represented as either M?L or M?Z, according to whether the ligand is the donor (L) or acceptor (Z). A molecule is classified as [MLl XxZz] according to the number of L, X, and Z ligand functions that surround M. Not only does the [MLl XxZz] designation provide a formal classification of a molecule, but it also indicates the electron configuration, the valence, and the number of nonbonding electrons on M. As such, the classification allows a student to understand relationships between molecules, thereby increasing their ability to conceptualize and learn the chemistry of the elements.
Division of Chemical Education, Inc and ACS Publications Division of the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-227-5558; Tel: 202-872-4600; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A