ERIC Number: EJ1029570
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Feb
Abstractor: As Provided
African American English-Speaking Students: A Longitudinal Examination of Style Shifting from Kindergarten through Second Grade
Craig, Holly K.; Kolenic, Giselle E.; Hensel, Stephanie L.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, v57 n1 p143-157 Feb 2014
Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study was twofold: to examine shifting from African American English (AAE) to mainstream American English (MAE) across the early elementary grades, when students are first exposed to formal instruction in reading; and to examine how metalinguistic and cognitive variables influenced the students' dialectal adaptations from AAE to MAE in a literacy context with higher expectations for MAE. Method: Participants were 102 typically developing AAE-speaking students enrolled in public schools in the northern Midwest. They were enrolled in the project at kindergarten and tested 3 times a year, for 3 years. Approximately half were male and half female, and two-thirds were from low socioeconomic status homes. Results: A style shifting coefficient (SSC) was created to measure amounts of dialect change between contexts and over time by individuals. Some students shifted to MAE in literacy contexts, and shifting was not related to grade. Metalinguistic skills and SSC predicted reading, and metalinguistic skills predicted the SSC at 2nd grade. The findings indicated that cognitive executive functions may contribute to the SSC. Conclusions: The results provide strong support for the dialect shifting-reading achievement hypothesis and indicated that metalinguistic and perhaps executive functioning are important influences on this linguistic adaptation.
Descriptors: African American Students, Black Dialects, English, Standard Spoken Usage, Longitudinal Studies, Elementary School Students, Kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 2, Reading Achievement, Language Skills, Public Schools, Code Switching (Language), Reading Instruction, Expectation
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Tel: 800-638-8255; Fax: 301-571-0457; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web site: http://jslhr.asha.org
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Kindergarten; Grade 1; Grade 2
Authoring Institution: N/A