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ERIC Number: EJ1029118
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Mar
Pages: 27
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0013-5984
Differential Growth Trajectories for Achievement among Children Retained in First Grade: A Growth Mixture Model
Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Kwok, Oi-Man
Elementary School Journal, v114 n3 p327-353 Mar 2014
The authors investigated the differential effect of retention on the development of academic achievement from grades 1 to 5 on children retained in grade 1 over 6 years. Growth mixture model (GMM) analyses supported the existence of two distinct trajectory groups of retained children for both reading and math among 125 ethnically and linguistically diverse retained children. For each achievement domain, a low intercept/higher growth group (Class 1) and a high intercept/slower growth group (Class 2) were identified. Furthermore, Class 1 children were found to score lower on several measures of learning related skills variables and were characterized by having poorer self-regulation and fewer prosocial behaviors compared to the other group. Findings suggest that some children appear to benefit more from retention, in terms of higher reading and math growth, than others. Study findings have implications for selecting children into retention intervention and early intervention.
University of Chicago Press. Journals Division, P.O. Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637. Tel: 877-705-1878; Tel: 773-753-3347; Fax: 877-705-1879; Fax: 773-753-0811; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education; Primary Education; Intermediate Grades; Grade 1; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4; Grade 5
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A