ERIC Number: EJ1027649
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 33
Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass
Southard, Dan L.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, v85 n1 p107-116 2014
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to kick at 3 different velocities with and without an accuracy requirement. Multivariate analysis of variance determined if relative timing of joint angular velocities changed during the kick. Chi-square analysis determined if calculated effective mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences in absolute constant error and variable error according to independent factors. Results: Results indicated that experience and speed affect absolute timing of joint velocities with no changes in the relative timing of peak joint velocity across independent factors. Chi-square analysis indicated that calculated effective mass is not independent of ankle velocity. ANOVA indicated that experienced performers displayed less variability error than did inexperienced performers. Conclusion: It was concluded that: (a) Experience, velocity, and accuracy do not affect the relative timing of kicks; (b) kickers trade ankle velocity at impact for greater effective striking mass and ball velocity; and (c) variability in ball placement is affected by experience.
Descriptors: Team Sports, Kinetics, Accuracy, Goal Orientation, Multivariate Analysis, Statistical Analysis, Differences, Skill Development, Predictor Variables, College Students, Motion, Experience
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A