ERIC Number: EJ1027443
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
The Role of Planning Skills in the Income-Achievement Gap
Crook, Stephen R.; Evans, Gary W.
Child Development, v85 n2 p405-411 Mar-Apr 2014
The pervasive income-achievement gap has been attributed in part to deficiencies in executive functioning (EF). The development of EF is related to children's planning ability, an aspect of development that has received little attention. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study of early child care show that early childhood poverty (1 and 24 months) is significantly related to fifth grade, math, and reading achievement (n = 1,009). The ability to plan in Grade 3, indexed by the Tower of Hanoi task, mediates the income-achievement gap in math and to a lesser extent in reading. IQ was incorporated as a statistical control throughout.
Descriptors: Achievement Gap, Income, Executive Function, Children, Planning, Child Development, Poverty, Mathematics Achievement, Reading Achievement, Grade 5, Grade 3, Intelligence Quotient, Early Experience, Longitudinal Studies
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 3; Grade 5; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education; Primary Education; Intermediate Grades
Authoring Institution: N/A