ERIC Number: EJ1026375
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Abstractor: As Provided
Fee-Free Public or Low-Fee Private Basic Education in Rural Ghana: How Does the Cost Influence the Choice of the Poor?
Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, v44 n2 p140-161 2014
The paper uses data from a household survey of three rural communities and interviews in the Mfantseman Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana to investigate the costs incurred by households that choose either fee-free public schools or low-fee private schools. The paper shows that both provisions impose costs that place those with lower household incomes at a disadvantage since the poorest cannot afford the costs for several children. Although fee-free public education has led to the elimination of payments such as tuition, exams and extra classes fees, other direct costs such as feeding and school uniform consume a large part of the household expenditure on education for the poor. Low-fee for profit private schools remain out of reach and are not affordable by the poorest. The paper concludes that fee-free public schooling still leaves households with significant costs, which constitute a barrier to access for children from poor households. The findings indicate the need for the government of Ghana, and those other countries with similar circumstances, to develop and implement policies that are pro-poor and ensure that there are no costs to the poorest households since this is the only way all children will enjoy a full cycle of basic education as mandated by commitments to Education for All.
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Access to Education, Community Surveys, Student Costs, Public Education, Private Education, School Choice, Parent Financial Contribution, Expenditures, Performance Factors, Low Income Groups, Geographic Location, Instructional Program Divisions, Rural Areas, Predictor Variables, Heads of Households, Elementary Secondary Education
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Ghana
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A