ERIC Number: EJ1025747
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
An Exploration of Parenting Behaviours and Attitudes during Early Infancy: Association with Maternal and Infant Characteristics
Arnott, B.; Brown, A.
Infant and Child Development, v22 n4 p349-361 Jul-Aug 2013
The importance of warm and democratic parenting styles for optimal social, emotional and cognitive outcomes in children over the age of five is well established. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring variations in parenting styles during infancy, despite many popular parenting books aimed at this period. The primary aim of this study was to explore parenting styles in infancy and their association with infant and maternal characteristics. Five hundred and eight mothers of infants under 12?months of age completed a 36-item questionnaire examining cognitive and behavioural aspects of early parenting (Infancy Parenting Styles Questionnaire). Items for the questionnaire were generated from popular culture early parenting books, and those raised in discussion with mothers. The underlying factor structure of the Infancy Parenting Styles Questionnaire revealed five independent factors: discipline, routine, anxiety, nurturance and involvement, which mapped onto existing concepts of warmth/nurturance and control for parenting older children, with additional constructs pertaining to the challenge of caring for young infants. Early parenting style was associated with maternal age and education, and infant birth weight, gender and age. The findings are discussed in relation to the parenting styles literature for older children and the attachment literature.
Descriptors: Parenting Styles, Parent Attitudes, Infants, Mothers, Affective Behavior, Child Rearing, Individual Characteristics, Questionnaires, Cognitive Processes, Discipline, Anxiety, Age Differences, Educational Attainment, Parent Background, Body Weight, Gender Differences, Attachment Behavior
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A