NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1025682
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 19
ISSN: ISSN-0145-482X
Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition
Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah
Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, v108 n2 p107-121 Mar-Apr 2014
Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline across behaviors design was used to investigate the use of constant time delay to teach recognition of highly motivating braille words to four students with visual impairments and intellectual disabilities. Results: Each participant learned all words taught (9-12 words each). A functional relation was demonstrated for all four participants by immediate changes in trend from baseline to intervention. Discussion: This is the first published report of the successful use of constant time delay to teach braille word recognition to students with visual impairments and intellectual disabilities. An attending cue was introduced into the procedures for students with a low number of unprompted correct responses, and results were positive. Possible sources of variability in word retention are discussed. Implications for practitioners: Results suggest constant time delay can be adapted and implemented with braille readers in typical teaching environments.
American Foundation for the Blind. 11 Penn Plaza Suite 300, New York, NY 10001. Tel: 800-232-5463; Tel: 212-502-7600; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A