ERIC Number: EJ1025311
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children's Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later
Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Gripshover, Sarah J.; Romero, Carissa; Dweck, Carol S.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.
Child Development, v84 n5 p1526-1541 Sep-Oct 2013
In laboratory studies, praising children's effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks--they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children's inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents' early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children's later fixed-ability frameworks, parents' praise of children's effort at 14-38 months ("N" = 53) did predict incremental frameworks at 7-8 years, suggesting that causal mechanisms identified in experimental work may be operating in home environments.
Descriptors: Parent Child Relationship, Toddlers, Positive Reinforcement, Motivation, Family Environment, Predictor Variables
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
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