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ERIC Number: EJ1023821
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 7
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1074-2956
Integrating Schema-Based Instruction and Response Cards for Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors
Schwab, James Raymond; Tucci, Stacey; Jolivette, Kristine
Beyond Behavior, v22 n3 p24-30 Spr 2013
With the advent of No Child Left Behind (2002), the academic expectations of students with disabilities have changed. Students with disabilities are now held to the same academic standards as their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, the 2004 provisions in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act state that students with disabilities must have access to the general education curriculum. Additional reforms from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) require an increased focus on students' conceptual rather than procedural understanding of mathematics concepts. Students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) often have not mastered basic facts that prepare them for higher mathematics and display a higher rate of absenteeism than other students (Hodge, Riccomini, Buford, & Herbst, 2006). Students with EBD and LD may miss instruction due to inappropriate behavior. Therefore, there is a need for strong behavioral and academic interventions to help instruct these students and keep them in collaborative general education classrooms as outlined in their individualized education programs. One instructional approach that has shown some positive outcomes in elementary and middle schools to address mathematical concepts is schema-based instruction (SBI). However, an academic intervention alone is not guaranteed to increase student response rates because students with math difficulties may not be motivated by academic content (Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, & Lo, 2006). The use of response cards (RC), a behavioral strategy, has been successful in increasing response rates of students with LD, EBD, and moderate to severe intellectual disabilities and has been used in a variety of classrooms (Berrong, Schuster, Morse, & Collins, 2007; Davis & O'Neil, 2004; George, 2010). Educators may use a combination of SBI and RC to address both the academic and behavioral difficulties that students with LD and EBD may present during academic instruction. In this article, the authors describe how SBI can be successfully implemented in the classroom, focusing on the use of four steps for teaching students to solve word problems, identified by the acronym FOPS. The steps include: (1) find the problem type; (2) organize the information in the problem using a diagram; (3) plan to solve the problem; and (4) solve the problem. The authors go on to explain how RCs, reusable signs or cards that students hold up simultaneously to show their response to a teacher's question, are an effective strategy to increase on-task behavior and provide students more opportunities to respond. Finally, the authors describe how these two techniques can be implemented in conjunction with one another to effectively teach word problems and increase the success of all students within collaborative general education classrooms.
Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. Council for Exceptional Children, 1110 North Glebe Road, Arlington, VA 22201-5704. Tel: 612-276-0140; Fax: 612-276-0142; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Journal Articles
Education Level: Grade 8
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004; No Child Left Behind Act 2001
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A