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ERIC Number: EJ1023339
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0305-4985
Behind the Façade of Fee-Free education: Shadow Education and Its Implications for Social Justice
Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora
Oxford Review of Education, v39 n4 p480-497 2013
Most governments, at an official level, espouse the principles of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Among its statements is that education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Yet while the façade of government education systems presents an image that instruction is free of charge, families across the world increasingly find it necessary to invest in the so-called shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring. The spread of shadow education, which is no longer confined to relatively prosperous families, has far-reaching implications for social inequalities and therefore social justice. It is a hidden form of privatisation behind the façade of public education systems; and the fact that shadow education is seen by many families as unavoidable appears to be incompatible with the spirit of the Universal Declaration. The question then is whether the spirit of the Universal Declaration should be abandoned, or whether it should be protected--and, if so, how.
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Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Journal Articles
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A