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ERIC Number: EJ1022075
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-2194
The Effect of Grade Norms in College Students: Using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement
Cressman, Markus N.; Liljequist, Laura
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v47 n3 p271-278 May-Jun 2014
The "Woodcock-Johnson III" Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition" Full Scale IQ and the "Woodcock-Johnson III" Total Achievement, Broad Reading, Math, and Written Language scores. The proportion meeting the substantial discrepancy criterion of two standard deviations plus or minus the standard error of the difference between means was 7.9% using age norms and 37.6% using grade norms. Using mixed analyses of variance, the authors found main effects for type of norm for all difference scores, with grade norms yielding significantly higher difference scores than age norms. A main effect for student status (traditional-age students "n" = 124, non-traditional-age students "n" = 78) was found for Total Achievement, Broad Reading, and Math such that traditional-age students had greater discrepancies. Discrepancy scores are contrasted with absolute scores (SS < 85) in the identification of learning disabilities as well. Implications of using grade versus age norms are discussed.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A