ERIC Number: EJ1020604
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Mar
Reclaiming Indigenous Languages: A Reconsideration of the Roles and Responsibilities of Schools
McCarty, Teresa L.; Nicholas, Sheilah E.
Review of Research in Education, v38 n1 p106-136 Mar 2014
In this chapter, the authors offer a critical examination of a growing field of educational inquiry and social practice: the reclamation of Indigenous mother tongues. They use the term "reclamation" purposefully to denote that these are languages that have been forcibly subordinated in contexts of colonization. Language reclamation includes revival of a language no longer spoken as a first language, "revitalization" of a language already in use, and "reversal" of language shift (RLS), a term popularized by Joshua Fishman (1991) to describe the reengineering of social supports for intergenerational mother tongue transmission. All of these processes involve what Maori scholar Margie Kahukura Hohepa (2006) calls "language regeneration," a term that speaks of "growth and regrowth," recognizing that nothing "regrows in exactly the same shape that it had previously, or in exactly the same direction. The causes underlying shift from a community language to a dominating one are complex and power linked. The authors' goal is to peel back the layers of that complexity. This review is organized around two foci: (1) School-based language reclamation: whether or how schools might be efficacious sites for language reclamation; and (2) Geographic: Native North America illuminates the wide range of language planning challenges and possibilities that attend the sociohistorical, educational, and sociolinguistic circumstances of diverse Indigenous peoples, as well as crosscutting themes of language education policy, sovereignty, and human rights.
Descriptors: Indigenous Knowledge, Educational Research, Native Language, Language Maintenance, Language Skill Attrition, American Indian Languages, Language Planning, Educational Policy, Civil Rights, Sociolinguistics, Self Determination, American Indian Culture, Cultural Pluralism, Native Language Instruction, Foreign Policy, Foreign Countries, History, School Role, School Responsibility
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada; United States
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IES Cited: ED562652