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ERIC Number: EJ1020267
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Sep
Pages: 6
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1073-5836
Changing the Rules to Increase Discourse
Brooks, Lisa A.; Dixon, Juli K.
Teaching Children Mathematics, v20 n2 p84-89 Sep 2013
This article describes how one of the authors, second-grade teacher Lisa A. Brooks, challenged the raise-your-hand to-speak rule. Her desire to make this change was a result of experiences gained in a graduate class taught by the second author, Juli K. Dixon. Brooks had learned that it is possible to create a classroom community where students share their mathematical understanding and misunderstanding through student-driven discourse. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) document emphasizes Standards for Mathematical Practice. "The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students" (CCSSI 2010, p. 6). One Standard for Mathematical Practice is for students to achieve the ability to "construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others". This practice describes how students should be interacting with the mathematics and with one another. Research indicates that this sort of involvement promotes understanding (Peressini and Knuth 2000; Kazemi and Stipek 2001). Asking students to construct viable arguments gives them an opportunity to provide reasoning along with their answers. The assumption is that students will make their case on the basis of their understanding of the mathematics. Their arguments must include the pathway to the solution as well as a justification of why their solution is acceptable. A process of negotiation between the teacher and students establishes the teacher's clear expectations and involves the students.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1502. Tel: 800-235-7566; Tel: 703-620-3702; Fax: 703-476-2970; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 2
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A