ERIC Number: EJ1016576
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Posing Cognitively Demanding Tasks to All Students
Lambert, Rachel; Stylianou, Despina A.
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, v18 n8 p500-504, 506 Apr 2013
Cognitively demanding tasks (CDT) (Stein et al. 2000) are necessary for the development of students' mathematical reasoning skills. Research is unequivocal on the importance of giving students opportunities to engage in such tasks. Although current reform efforts call for mathematics learning for "all" students, learners who struggle in mathematics or who have special education placements have less access to demanding mathematics (Weiss et al. 2003). To successfully include all learners in the mathematics classroom, instruction needs to be designed so that it is accessible to all without compromising cognitive demand. How can we design instruction so that students of varying levels and abilities can develop strategies that work for them, understand the strategies of others, and make thoughtful choices about which strategies to use? The authors describe one episode that occurred in the classroom of Ms. Ramos, in which instruction was designed for an inclusion classroom to embrace learners with disabilities. Using the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) (CAST 2011), one approach to designing widely accessible instruction from the outset, the authors present an analysis of how this teacher created an accessible classroom focused on answering challenging questions. A bibliography is included.
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Teaching Methods, Cognitive Processes, Middle Schools, Secondary School Mathematics, Mathematics Skills, Thinking Skills, Mathematical Logic, Mathematical Concepts, Difficulty Level, Problem Solving, Learner Engagement
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1502. Tel: 800-235-7566; Tel: 703-620-3702; Fax: 703-476-2970; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web site: http://www.nctm.org/publications/
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Middle Schools
Authoring Institution: N/A