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ERIC Number: EJ1015583
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Apr
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1092-4388
Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development
Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, v56 n2 p643-653 Apr 2013
Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better pre-CI-aided hearing, and longer CI experience were also examined. Method: Sixty children participated in a prospective longitudinal study of outcomes at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Twenty-nine children received a sequential second CI. Test scores were compared with normative samples of hearing age mates, and predictors of outcomes were identified. Results: Standard scores on language tests at 10.5 years of age remained significantly correlated with age of first cochlear implantation. Scores were not associated with receipt of a second, sequentially acquired CI. Significantly higher scores were achieved for vocabulary as compared with overall language, a finding not evident when the children were tested at younger ages. Conclusion: Age-appropriate spoken language skills continued to be more likely with younger AOI, even after an average of 8.6 years of additional CI use. Receipt of a second implant between ages 4 and 10 years and longer duration of device use did not provide significant added benefit. (Contains 7 tables and 3 figures.)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Tel: 800-638-8255; Fax: 301-571-0457; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada; United States
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Preschool Language Scale; Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A