NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1014484
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Aug
Pages: 25
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0961-205X
Gender-Specific or Common Classroom Norms? Examining the Contextual Moderators of the Risk for Victimization
Isaacs, Jenny; Voeten, Marinus; Salmivalli, Christina
Social Development, v22 n3 p555-579 Aug 2013
We tested whether gender-specific vs. common classroom norms were more powerful moderators of the association between a risk factor (rejection) and peer victimization among girls and boys. The participants were 1220 elementary schoolchildren from grades 4-6 (with 10-13 years of age). We compared different multilevel models including combined vs. separate regressions for boys and girls, as well as the effects of norms of the whole class, same-sex classmates, and cross-sex classmates. Among girls, the association between rejection and victimization was strongest in classes where bullying behavior was common, and anti-bullying attitudes were rare among girls. Among boys, the strength of the slope of victimization on rejection could not be explained by either common or gender-specific classroom norms, but boys' level of bullying behavior was related to overall classroom level of victimization. The findings suggest that contextual factors may contribute to victimization especially among high-risk girls. The importance of exploring multiple levels of influence on children's social development is discussed. (Contains 3 tables, 2 figures, and 4 notes.)
Wiley-Blackwell. 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148. Tel: 800-835-6770; Tel: 781-388-8598; Fax: 781-388-8232; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Grade 5; Grade 6
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Finland
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A