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ERIC Number: EJ1013486
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Mar
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0018-2133
The Effects of Processing Instruction with and without Output: Acquisition of the Spanish Subjunctive in Three Conjunctional Phrases
Kirk, Rachel W.
Hispania, v96 n1 p153-169 Mar 2013
This study examines the effects of processing instruction (PI) alone versus PI and output (O) on the acquisition of three conjunctional and infinitival phrases in Spanish. Seventy intermediate and advanced-intermediate high school participants received: 1) PI on three consecutive days (PI + PI + PI); 2) PI for two days and meaning-based output practice on the third (PI + PI + O); 3) PI on the first and third days, and output on the second (PI + O + PI); or 4) PI one day, followed by two days of output (PI + O + O). Results of a pre-test and two post-tests demonstrated positive effects from PI in both interpretation and production abilities. The provision of output generally did not enhance or hinder the effects of PI, except when more days were devoted to output than to PI. When students dedicated more time to output-oriented class activities than they did to PI, the interpretation results were significantly lower. (Contains 6 notes and 2 tables.)
American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, Inc. 900 Ladd Road, Walled Lake, MI 48390. Tel: 248-960-2180; Fax: 248-960-9570; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research; Tests/Questionnaires
Education Level: High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Minnesota
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A