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ERIC Number: EJ1012817
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 39
ISSN: ISSN-1070-5511
A Test for Cluster Bias: Detecting Violations of Measurement Invariance across Clusters in Multilevel Data
Jak, Suzanne; Oort, Frans J.; Dolan, Conor V.
Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, v20 n2 p265-282 2013
We present a test for cluster bias, which can be used to detect violations of measurement invariance across clusters in 2-level data. We show how measurement invariance assumptions across clusters imply measurement invariance across levels in a 2-level factor model. Cluster bias is investigated by testing whether the within-level factor loadings are equal to the between-level factor loadings, and whether the between-level residual variances are zero. The test is illustrated with an example from school research. In a simulation study, we show that the cluster bias test has sufficient power, and the proportions of false positives are close to the chosen levels of significance. (Contains 4 tables and 3 figures.)
Psychology Press. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Grade 5; Grade 6; Intermediate Grades
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A