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ERIC Number: EJ1008213
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 5
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 16
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0145-482X
The Use of Final-Letter Braille Contractions: A Case Study
Tallon, Emily M.; Herzberg, Tina S.
Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, v107 n3 p221-225 May-Jun 2013
Louis Braille developed a six-dot braille code in the early 1800s, thus creating an effective way for persons who are visually impaired to communicate through reading and writing (Holbrook, D'Andrea, & Sanford, 2011). Students with visual impairments require braille instruction from teachers of students with visual impairments, who are responsible for teaching direct braille literacy skills to students from kindergarten through at least the third grade (Koenig & Holbrook, 2000b). Individuals tend to read braille at a slower rate than print readers read print (Wall Emerson, Holbrook, & D'Andrea, 2009; Harley, Truan, & Sanford, 1997; Wetzel & Knowlton, 2000). In the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study, the mean of the reading speed of 20 third-grade students who read braille was 53.19 in contrast to the norm of 107 for sighted students at the 50th percentile (Wall Emerson, Holbrook, & D'Andrea, 2009; Hasbrouck & Tindal, 2006). Poor knowledge of braille contractions may hinder reading and writing fluency, which is imperative for success in school. Research has shown that students are at risk of advancing in school with poor, fragmented braille skills if they have not had high-quality instruction during their elementary school years, which may hinder their progress in all other school subjects (Koenig & Holbrook, 2000b). Therefore, continued intensive instruction in writing and reading from a teacher who knows braille is required throughout the elementary school years (Wall Emerson, Holbrook, & D'Andrea, 2009; Wall Emerson et al., 2009; Harley et al., 1997; Koenig & Holbrook, 2000a; Swenson, 1999). The purpose of this case study was to increase a participant's knowledge and use of the 14 final-letter braille contractions, including the ability to identify the dot placement of the contractions, verbalize the letters that each contraction represented, identify the sound each contraction made, use contractions consistently in writing, and fluently decode words containing these contractions. (Contains 1 table.)
American Foundation for the Blind. 11 Penn Plaza Suite 300, New York, NY 10001. Tel: 800-232-5463; Tel: 212-502-7600; e-mail: afbinfo@afb.net; Web site: http://www.afb.org/store
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A