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ERIC Number: EJ1006985
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Jan
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0360-1315
Do Fourth Graders Integrate Text and Picture in Processing and Learning from an Illustrated Science Text? Evidence from Eye-Movement Patterns
Mason, Lucia; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Pluchino, Patrik
Computers & Education, v60 n1 p95-109 Jan 2013
This study used eye-tracking methodology in the school setting to examine fourth graders' online processing of text and graphics while reading an illustrated science text. We were interested in identifying patterns of visual behavior, which was examined considering individual differences in reading comprehension, prior knowledge, and spatial ability. We also investigated the outcomes of learning from text by measuring free recall, factual knowledge, and transfer of knowledge. For an important advancement of research in this area, the link between processing and learning was also examined. Forty-nine 4th graders participated in a pretest, immediate, and delayed posttest design. Results of a cluster analysis using indices of first- and second-pass eye-fixation, as well as integrative saccades revealed three patterns of visual behavior varying for the level of integration of text and picture. Significant associations between eye-tracking data and reading comprehension and prior knowledge emerged. Moreover, the three patterns of visual behavior were significantly related to students' performances in the various learning tasks at both testing times. The greater integrative processing of the illustrated text was associated with higher learning performances. The significance of the study for educational implications is outlined. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
Elsevier. 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043. Tel: 800-325-4177; Tel: 314-447-8000; Fax: 314-447-8033; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A